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Invasive Procedures Significantly Hike Heart Failure Hospitalization Costs in US

December 22, 2020

Although they vary widely among patients, costs for inpatient hospitalizations for heart failure in the United States are significant and are affected most by comorbidities, invasive procedures, and readmissions, according to a study published online in the International Journal of Cardiology.

The study included 2.6 million patients with primary heart failure hospitalized between 2010 and 2014 in the United States.

Overall, the mean ± SD total cost was $13,807 ± 24,145, researchers reported. For patients without a readmission, the mean total cost was $11,845 ± 22,710. For patients with a 30-day readmission, the mean total cost rose to $15,618 ± 25,264.

Pulmonary circulatory disorder, valvular heart disease, and bleeding were each strongly associated with increased costs, according to the study.

Among inpatients, 12.6% received an invasive diagnostic procedure or treatment, which significantly raised hospitalization costs. Compared with a $10,995 mean cost for patients who did not receive invasive care, the study found cost increases of $129,547 with the receipt of circulatory support, $119,769 with an intra-aortic balloon pump, $251,110 with a left ventricular assist device, and $293,575 with heart transplant.

“The greatest mean additional cost annually was associated with receipt of coronary angiogram ($26,282 per person for a total of $728.5 million),” researchers wrote, “and mechanical ventilation ($54,529 per person for a total of $501.7 million).”

Jolynn Tumolo


Kwok CS, Abramov D, Parwani P, et al. Cost of inpatient heart failure care and 30-day readmissions in the United States [published online ahead of print, 2020 Dec 12]. Int J Cardiol. 2020;S0167-5273(20)34268-6. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.12.020

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